Emission and immission predictions

Emission and impact forecasts

We offer problem-oriented testing for the immission protection assessment of your planning. Müller-BBM provides the basis for evaluating different scenarios with the help of immissions forecasts. For this purpose, we calculate the transport emissions and the immissions caused by it, or for example, the number of residents affected by traffic noise or air pollutants. We are also pleased to help in the design of appropriate protection measures.

Our services in the following areas are:

Air-borne pollutants

We usually determine traffic-related emissions, on the basis of traffic data and the "HBEFA Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport" database according to VDI 3782 part 7 " determination of air impurities in vehicle emissions". The transport of pollutants with the air flow is calculated with different micro-and mesoscale flow and dispersion models. The selection of the models is determined by the boundary conditions and the topography in the study area.

The screening methods or PROKAS IMMISluft are used for simple estimates of emissions in residential areas. Detailed calculations of wind flow affected by buildings or noise barriers for example, and dispersion behaviour are possible with the microscale forecast model MISKAM. To account for the effects of terrain features (e.g. narrow valleys), we use LASAT or METRAS models.

So-called cold-air flows (downslope winds) can arise during low wind, cloudless weather; these may be calculated using the prognostic simulation model  KLAM_21 developed by the German Weather Service and integrated in the dispersion calculations with LASAT. For large area slopes, it may be necessary to use the mesoscale forecast wind field model METRAS.

The nitrogen inputs in the surface areas of fauna and flora habitats (FFH) are derived from simulations obtained with LASAT deposits testing (dry and wet) of nitrogen-containing pollutants (nitrogen oxides and ammonia) on the ground.

Müller-BBM handles the tests in accordance with the principle guideline VDI 3783 Part 14 "Quality control concerning impact forecast - Vehicle-related impacts" and in compliance with all applicable regulations and guidelines. All methods and models are accepted in court a court of law. In this way, we guarantee legally compliant reports for your project planning.

Traffic noise

The construction or substantial modification of roads and railways as well as facilities for air traffic or similar issues in urban land development or noise abatement planning must, in accordance with the legal requirements, initially forecast and assess noise pollution.

To this end, Müller-BBM carries out extensive simulations using three-dimensional calculation models. All relevant noise sources and noise barriers and buildings are entered into a terrain model, the calculation of noise exposure is based on the established rules and regulations: of road traffic noise according to RLS-90, for rail traffic noise, according to Schall 03, for aircraft noise according to the procedure of the Committee of Competent Authorities (CCA). As part of the noise mapping and noise abatement plan to the EU Environmental Noise Directive, the accurate data entry of the population is possible.

The calculated rating levels are then compared with the relevant directives and limit values. the corresponding questions the number of those affected by a particular rating level can also be determined.

In this way, the results for various noise control measures can be quickly compared and the acoustically effective measure can be selected.

Sports and leisure facilities

Sports and leisure facilities are mostly used in the evenings and at weekends, i.e. in periods when the residents feel the greatest need for quietness. Thus, in the vicinity of football pitches and tennis courts, go-cart tracks, basketball courts and swimming pools etc., often conflicts with the adjacent residential use arise. Artificial lighting systems such as floodlights in sports complexes also might cause conflicts with adjacent residential areas. Here, legal requirements are particularly strict, and usually they can only be complied with by implementing extensive protective measures.


In the planning of new sports or leisure facilities, but also concerning the renovation or extension of existing ones, it must be ensured that the noise caused by these facilities is compatible with the adjacent residential use. If electroacoustic systems are planned to be used in the respective facility, a mutually acceptable compromise must be found between the visitors’ need for information or entertainment and the residents’ need for quietness. Appendant parking areas have to be considered, too. Thus, noise control measures are often required if a sports or leisure facility is immediately adjacent to residential areas. In these cases, the planner usually has several options, and the effectiveness of these measures has to be considered carefully in advance.

For example, the acoustic compatibility of a facility can be achieved by a favourable arrangement of their individual parts. Alternatives would be acoustically optimized operation periods or noise barriers, if required.


MBBM provides consultancy services such as measurement, prediction, evaluation of light immissions and recommendations for planning. Further information can be found here.

Our experts will be pleased to advise you on individual solutions.


Vibrations from rail or road traffic can induce component vibrations in nearby buildings, which under certain circumstances may lead to the disturbance of residents and users.

Müller-BBM has over 30 years in the field of vibration measurement and forecasting work. We investigate vibration emissions from railroad traffic in existing and planned buildings, and assess them with regard to the impact on people in buildings and to structures in accordance with the respective standards.

We conduct site analyses and risk assessments in the run up to building construction in vibration-prone sites. When observed or predicted adverse impacts, we advise builders and planners on the vibration-optimised layout of components. The design and implementation of vibration-reducing measures to protect the building and to ensure its usability is also part of our range of services.

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